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  • Bamboo Glossary of terms and definitions

    Higuera Hardwoods Bamboo Terms and Definitions
     

    3-Ply construction
    three layers or sections of laminated bamboo material, maybe cross-laminated for the core only or straight laminated for the entire laminate schedule

    Aluminum oxide
    a chemical particle known as alumina, particles of aluminum oxide are added to a urethane liquid finish during the finish coating application for increased abrasion resistance on the finish surface

    ASTM International
    ASTM International is standards development organizations it is a source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM International standards are considered to have a vital role in the informational sources that guides most design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy in which we live in.


    ASTM D1037
    This test method cover the determination of the properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials as follows:

    Sections Size and Appearance of Boards
    Strength Properties: Static Bending
    Tensile Strength Parallel to Surface
    Tensile Strength Perpendicular to Surface
    Compression Strength Parallel to Surface


    Auto-clave
    a pressurized cooking device designed to heat solutions above their boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure to achieve sterilization and proper curing.


    Bamboo Blank
    Bamboo slats laminated into a cube/block/blank or beam from which Higuera Hardwoods bamboo products are precisely milled.

    Carbonizing
    A technique of heating bamboo slats to “darken” the sugars naturally present in Moso bamboo, this process will provide a soothing rich coloring without the additional use of  stains or dyes in the manufacturing process.

    Cross-Laminated or Cross-Ply
    all bamboo products construction method in which a raw bamboo blanks are placed crosswise to the top and bottom layers for structural stability. This technique is always used in Higuera Hardwoods high quality Bamboo wide engineered flooring and our Bamboo Panels

    Culm
    in botanical context, originally referred to a stem of any type of plant. It is derived from a Latin root, culmus, and now specifically refers to the above-ground or aerial stems of grasses

    Horizontal grain
    Type of construction in which bamboo slats are laminated flat to form a three-ply solid bamboo plank with no internal voids. The look is one of long slats subtly broken by a pattern of the bamboo stalk nodes that are about 1' wide.

    Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
    A non-profit organization devoted to encouraging the responsible management of the world's forests lands, we are one of the few companies in the US to achieve a line of FSC approved Bamboo products.


    Formaldehyde
    chemical formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is always naturally present at low levels indoors and outdoors, for the most part at less than 0.03 ppm (parts per million). Used in many common household products and building materials, it helps make manufacturing adhesives durable. Formaldehyde has been known to cause some irritation to humans and at very high levels of exposure has been shown to potential of cancer in laboratory animals.


    Green Building Rating System
    LEED’s an industry standard for environmentally friendly projects


    IEQ
    Indoor environmental quality abbreviation

    IEQ Credit 4.4
    IEQ Credit 4.4 covers low-emitting materials, including formaldehyde. Currently, this credit provides acceptable levels of formaldehyde emissions, but also qualifies as to type of formaldehyde. For example, urea formaldehyde does not qualify, but phenol formaldehyde does qualify. Higuera Hardwoods Products meet or exceed this standard


    Janka Ball Hardness Test
    The Janka hardness test measures the hardness of wood. It involves measuring the force required to embed an 11.28-millimeter (0.444 inch) steel ball into wood to half its diameter. This method was chosen so that the result would leave an indention 100 square millimeters in size. It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear.


    Lamination
    is the bonding of the wood slats or strips together with adhesives and extremely high pressures. For all of Higuera Hardwoods products this means to bond together several layers of bamboo slats in high a pressure with a environmentally sound and safe bonding agents to form hardwood "blanks" from which flooring, stair parts, trim, panels, veneer are constructed, milled and/or bonded together layers of "raw blank" material with cores and/or substrates.

    LEED®
    LEED Green Building Rating System™ or LEED credits
    LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System™, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, is the national standard by which green building is judged. Buildings are awarded LEED certification by earning credits for performance in sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality. http://www.usgbc.org/

    Low emitting an/or low off-gassing
    Describes materials which are like volatile organic compounds that emit give off or off gas chemicals at lower-than-normal levels.

    Milling
    Cutting and shaping manufactured products.


    MR Credit 6
    LEED MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials is a credit that can be earned toward LEED certification within the Green Building Rating System of the U.S. Green Building Council.

    Natural Color
    Higuera Hardwoods natural color of bamboo-a light blond coloring.

    Node
    The joint between main or hollow sections of a bamboo Shoot/Culm. Comprised of a stiff or rigid membrane that spans the Culm where branches and/or buds are found, the nodes strenghten and reinforce the main stalk without adding weight so the Culm remains flexible and strong so it does not break as easily.


    Off-gas and/or off gassing
    The process by which chemical compounds such as (VOCs) such as formaldehyde vaporize and enter the atmosphere.


    Phenol formaldehyde
    A thermosetting resin used to make molded products and is a coatings and adhesives product. This material does not break down as easily as urea-based adhesives, so it releases less formaldehyde. Under the LEED Green Building Rating System, products made with phenol formaldehyde manufacturing adhesives can qualify for IEQ Credit 4.4: Low-Emitting Materials.


    Phyllostachys pubescens
    The botanical name used for Moso bamboo, the raw material source that Higuera Hardwoods utilizes for all of it high quality raw material


    Rapidly renewable resource
    Describes a natural grown resource that rejuvenates itself by natural processes very rapidly. The bamboo plant is considered rapidly renewable because when harvested sustainably the plant re-grows from the same rootstalk, maturing in just a few years. In comparison oak trees or cherry trees take decades or even century's to grow and can be harvested only once.

    Rhizome
    This is the woody jointed stem or root of the bamboo plant that grows underground. Rhizomes of hardy "running" bamboo grow just below the surface of the soil and spread quickly. The tip of a running rhizome grows alternatively with shooting, often more than 30 feet in a single year. 


    Slat or Strips
    The long, thin, narrow section of bamboo that is cut from the Culm and milled to appropriate dimensions. They are then laminated into "blanks" that are used to construct bamboo flooring, plywood/panels, veneer, and mouldings. (different wording?)

    Solid Strip
    The solid piece of bamboo, which is from the bamboo Culm it is then pressure form or laminated to form blanks from which flooring, mouldings and plywood/panels are made.

    Sustainability, sustainable
    A process is sustainable if it can be repeated without any environmental impact. For this industry, it means harvesting materials in such a way to ensure years and years of raw materials without harming the environment. This also means our global outreach includes treating the employees fairly. Issues of sustainability influence every aspect of a business from raw materials to manufacturing and shipping to proximity of labor force to factories.

    Tongue-and-Groove
     A joint made by fitting a tongue on the edge of a board into a matching groove on another board.


    Urea formaldehyde
    Urea formaldehyde is a clear, thermosetting resin made from urea and formaldehyde, which is then heated in the presence of a mild base material such as ammonia. When is applied in adhesives, urea formaldehyde has high tensile strength, flexibility, low water absorption and a much higher surface hardness. Urea formaldehyde is used in interior plywood. Urea-formaldehyde manufacturing adhesives, even those that off-gas at levels far below national and international standards, do not qualify for IEQ 4.4: Low-Emitting Materials under the LEED Green Building Rating System. 


    U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
    A coalition of building-industry leaders working to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible and profitable, as well as being healthy places to live and work. USGBC's purpose is to improve the quality of life by transforming the way buildings and communities are designed, built, and operated with regard to environmental and social responsibility, healthfulness, and prosperity.
    http://www.usgbc.org/


    Vertical grain
    Type of construction in which the bamboo strips are laminated Vertically with edges exposed as the wear surface to form a solid bamboo plank with no internal voids. Vertical grain bamboo has minimal pattern, with no visible nodes and tends to be slightly harder the horizontal cut.


    VOC or VOCs
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that under normal conditions significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Some of these chemicals have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently much higher indoors than outdoors.

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